Reflections on Step-by-Step With Functional Grammar by Fiona Kettle-Muspratt, in the same style as the previous Cheat Sheet (#1), but this time focussed on processes, participants, circumstances, describers and qualifiers
The field of expressing language has ideational meaning. To figure out what is going on, functional grammar usually divides parts field participants, processes and circumstances into colours (See beneath). In order to figure out which is which, the same three probe questions can be asked:
- To find the participant(s):
- To find the process(es):
- To find the circumstance(s):
(Figure, p. 11)
- Noun group
- The people or entities involved
- The participants can be:
- Sensing (feeling) or experiencing something
- The one acting in the sentence
- Can be the receiver of an action (impacted or affected by)
- Saying something
- Participants are linked by processes realised by verbs
- Verbal group
- Halliday identified 6 process types (2004) :
- Material – processes of doing (work, arrest, erupt, climb, elect…)
- Relational – processes of being and having (be, have, stand …)
- Mental – processes of sensing and feeling (feel, think, wish, believe …)
- Verbal – processes of saying (say, tell, report, write, command, deny…)
- Behavioural – processes of human behaviour (sleep, cough, look, listen…)
- Existential – processes which are signalled by there, such as there is/there are
- Adverbial group
- Any further details in the clause? Circumstances answers:
Kettle-Muspratt present this worksheet/grid concept, that can be extended to expose the students to the range of functional groups in the nominal group.
Here are some examples:
Halliday, M.A.K. & Matthiessen, C.M.I.M.. (2004): Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd Edition). London: Arnold.
Kettle-Muspratt, F. (2009): Step-by-step With Functional Grammar.
Reflections on Introduction (chapter 1; pp. 1-11) from A New Grammar Companion by Beverly Derewianka
Chapter 1 in Derewianka’s book A New Grammar Companion – For Teachers (2015) introduces the book, its form and its chapters. The book can be used in several ways, but especially for those who are interested in either the meaning or the form of English grammar. The meaning behind grammar teaching focusses on the linguistic choices created for certain meanings. Grammar is reviewed as a resources; “(…) an array of possibilities from which we can choose” (p.1).
Functional grammar teaching is a…
- sociological perspective*
- language perspective, and a
- pedagogical perspective
*Sociological perspective as learners can (and should be able to) use language to achieve a range of social purposes such as describing, explaining, arguing and recounting.
When using a functional perspective:
- Language is a dynamic, complex system of resources for making meaning.
- Language reflects the culture in which it has evolved. It is not a neutral medium, but expresses certain world views, values, beliefs and attitudes.
- Our language choices change from situation to situation, depending on the social purpose for which language is being used, the subject matter, who is involved, and whether the language is spoken or written.
- The emphasis in language study is on how people use authentic language in various contexts in real life to achieve their purposes.
- The particular focus will be on the language needed for successful participation in school contexts.
- A knowledge of grammar can help us to critically evaluate our own texts and those of others (eg identifying point of view; examining how language can be manipulated to achieve certain effects and position the reader in different ways; knowing how language can be used to construct various identities or a particular way of viewing the world).
What language does and what it is needed for:
- For achieving different social purposes
- For sharing ideas about their experience of the world
- For making connections between these ideas
- For interacting with others
- And for constructing coherent texts in both spoken and written modes.
The language choices made are naturally influenced by the context. The context includes the purpose, field, tenor and mode. The figure beneath shows how a text is typically shaped (how, and why). The social purpose covers genre and characteristics thereof, thus the entire text and all it’s elements (read: context) is shaped by the social purpose of itself. Building the field influence that linguistic choices one has to express and connect ideas (knowledge), thus if the teacher is asking a learner to deliver a certain type of text, the “field” is where scaffolding ought to be done (if need be) e.g., to equip the learner with a broadened vocabulary (p.6). The tenor concerns the actual roles presented and their relationships with each other e.g., occupation, titles, intimate vs. distant relations. Finally the mode of the context has to do with creating a coherent and cohesive text, which is different from fluent and spontaneous verbal language.
The chapter also introduces the levels of language (and their relation to each other), divided into the following:
- Group/phrase (as a group of words, what function does ‘this phrase’ have in the sentence?)
Example of a story divided into the 5 levels of language: (p.11).
Derewianka, B. (2015): A New Grammar Companion – For Teachers. Reprint. PETAA